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GEO 4251

A Research Guide created for Geography 4251

Why Cite?

  • To give credibility to authors and sources whom you have quoted, paraphrased, summarized, and/or interpreted
  • It gives readers access to the sources you used in your work -- this helps build your credibility!
  • Citing helps avoid pesky plagiarism (see the "Plagiarism" section on this page).
  • To provide reputable authority, evidence, research, and/or information for your research, paper, or assignment.

APA Style

The APA style manual (American Psychological Association) is most commonly used to cite sources within the social sciences. It refers to the rules and conventions established by the American Psychological Association for documenting sources used in a research paper. APA style requires both in-text citations and a reference list. For every in-text citation there should be a full citation in the reference list and vice versa.


Dirac Science Library Reserves BF76.7 P83 2010

Strozier Library Ready Reference (Scholars Commons) BF76.7 P83 2010

Strozier Library Undergraduate Collection 2nd Floor BF76.7 P83 2010

Goldstein Library Professional Collection BF76.8 P83 2010

Medical Library Reference WZ 345P976 2010

In-Text Citation


What You Are Citing


In-Text Citation



 Entire work


(Rogers, 2008)




Specific page



(Rogers, 2008, p.39)




If author’s name is included in the text of the sentence



Rogers (2008, p.9) claims that…


**Use only the year, and page number(s) if applicable.


Online article with no page numbers


(Mayers, 2009, para.3)


(Childs, 2003, Introduction, para.2)


One author



Reference List:

Chance, K. (2005)







(Chance, 2005)



Two authors



Reference List:

Matthews, A. & Keats, J.  (1999)






(Matthews & Keats, 1999)


Three to five authors



Reference List:

Hunt, G. , Vail, M., & Plum, T. (1986)






First Citation:

(Hunt, Vail, & Plum,  1986)

Subsequent Citations

(Hunt et al., 1986)


Six or seven authors



Reference List:

Phelps, B. , Lima, M., Gomez, L., MacArthur, T., Gansu, S., & Jepes, N. (2001)





(Phelps et al., 2001)


Group author



Reference List:

American Library Association. (2009)



First Citation:

(American Library Association [ALA], 2009)


Subsequent Citations:

(ALA, 2009)



No author(s) listed



Reference List:



None to claim their bones: Relics of an old Brooklyn graveyard. (1888, April 12). New York Times, pp.3-4. Retrieved from






(“None to Claim Their Bones”, 1888)


**If the title contains a colon, only use the text before the colon in the in-text citation.


Undated sources




(King, n.d.)


Citing a source within a source


Reference List:

Linhares, A., & Brum,P.(2007). Understanding our understanding of strategic scenarios: What role do chunks play? Cognitive Science, 31 (6), 989-1007.



Fredericks study (as cited in Linhares & Brum, 2007) found that…


**Your in-text citations gives credit to second source

Reference List



Type of Source


Reference List Citation








Author, A. A. (Year of publication). Title of work: Capital letter also for subtitle. Location: Publisher.




Calgry, R. C. (1991). First step to career success. Washington, DC: USA Publications.





Edited book




Editor, A.A. (Ed.). (Year of publication). Title of work. Location: Publisher.




Duncan, J., & Gunn, K. (Eds.). (1993). Consequences of fame. Chicago: Sage Press.





Article or chapter in an edited book




Author, A. A., & Author, B. B. (Year of publication). Title of chapter. In A.A. Editor & B.B. Editor (Eds.), Title of book (pages of chapter). Location: Publisher.




McCarthy, A. (2001). Studying soap opera. In Glen Creeber (Ed.), The television genre book (pp. 47-49). London: BFI Publishing.





Electronic-only book




Author, A. (Year of Publication). Title of book. Retrieved from




Kornblum, W. (2002). At sea in the city: New York from the water’s edge. Retrieved from





Type of Source Reference List Citation

Article in a periodical (journal/magazine)



**If articles from a library database are “easily located, do not provide database information. If the article is difficult to locate, then you can provide database information.” ~Purdue Online Writing Lab.

Journal Format:


Author, A. A., Author, B. B., & Author, C. C. (Year). Title of article. Title of Periodical, volume number(issue number), pages.


Journal Example:


Scruton, R. (1996). The eclipse of listening. The New Criterion, 15(30), 5-13.


Magazine Format:


Author(s). (Year, Month Day). Title of article. Title of Periodicalissue number, pages.


Magazine Example:


Henry, W. A., III. (1990, April 9). Making the grade in today's schools. Time, 135, 28-31.

Newspaper article 

Print Format:


Author(s). (Year, Month Day). Title of article. Title of Newspaper, page(s).


Print Example:


Brown, P.L. (1999, September 5). Tiffany glass and other tales from the crypt. New York Times, pp. A1, A5.


Electronic Format:


Author, A. A. (Year, Month Day). Title of article. Title of Newspaper. Retrieved from


Electronic Example:


Foreman, J. (2003, August 12). Allston gothic. Boston Globe. Retrieved from

Article From online periodical (no DOI)


Author, A. A., & Author, B. B. (Publication Year). Title   of article. Title of Periodical, volume number(issue number if available), page(s). Retrieved from 



Berns, D. (2002). 10 tips on writing. Writer’s Guide, 10(2), 25-30. Retrieved from


Article From online periodical (DOI provided)



Author, A.A., Author, B.B., & Author, C.C. (Year). Title of article. Title of Periodical, xx, pp-pp. doi:xx.xxxxxxxxxx




Herbst-Damm, K.L., & Kulik, J.A. (2005). Volunteer support, marital status, and the survival times of terminally ill patients. Health Psychology, 24, 225-229. doi:10.1037/0278-6133.24.



                           Type of Source                                                                                                                                                                                                

Reference List Citation

Entire web site



In APA style there is no need to include an entry for an entire web site in your reference list as long as you identify the source clearly in the text of your paper.




The Purdue University Online Writing Lab was extremely helpful in understanding the differences between APA and MLA style (


Electronic Format:

Last name, F. (Year Created). Title of image. [Format]. Retrieved from 


Electronic Example:


O’Sullivan, T. (1863). Incidents of the war. A harvest of death, Gettysburg, July 1863 [Photograph]. Retrieved from


Print Format:


Last name, F. (Year Created). Title of image [Format]. Location: Museum/Institution.


Print Example:


Wyeth, A. (1948). Christina's world [Painting]. New York, NY: Museum of Modern Art.



APA: Basics of APA Style Tutorial

APA Style Essentials Vanguard University

Purdue Online Writing Lab: APA

National-Louis University Center of Academic Development

Citing Electronic Sources

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