RStudio by default displays four panes: Console, Source Code, Environment/History, and Files. You can rearrange them by going to View -> Panes -> Pane Layout. You can add and remove tabs from panes by going to View and selecting/deselecting tab options listed at the bottom.
The Console is where you execute script and view the output. By default, when you open RStudio the Console loads information about R and where you can find documentation. You can clear the console at any time with Ctrl + L.
The Environment tab provides meta-project information such as what values you have stored in variables and your custom functions.
The History tab runs through your previously-executed commands.
Git is an additional optional tab that is not enabled by default. Git is a version control tool that can be configured by going to Tools -> Global Options and navigating to Git/SVN. Visit Using Version Control with RStudio for more information.
Files shows you all files and folders in your current working directory. You can change your working directory by going to Session -> Set Working Directory -> Choose Directory or by typing setwd("~/directoryfolder") (where ~ represents your home folder) in the Console.
The Plots tab displays any plots, graphs, or charts you run using one of R's visualization tools.
Packages is the system library of default R packages. Use the checkboxes to select and deselect packages here, or install additional packages by running install.packages("packagename") in the Console.
Help is the viewer for R documentation. To learn about a function, command, or other tool in R, enter help("topicname") in the Console and refer to the Help viewer.
The Viewer displays additional visualizations; for instance, if you are running a Shiny web app or previewing an HTML web document.
Create a New Script
Scripts will be saved in your current working directory.
Run Script in Console
Run Short Code in Console
Shift + Return will create a new line in the Console without executing the command.
Navigate to Start/End of Document