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Citation Management for Business Students & Faculty

APA Style

"Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association"

The APA style manual (American Psychological Association) is most commonly used to cite sources within the social sciences. It refers to the rules and conventions established by the American Psychological Association for documenting sources used in a research paper. APA style requires both in-text citations and a reference list. For every in-text citation there should be a full citation in the reference list and vice versa.


Dirac Science Library Reserves BF76.7 P83 2010

Strozier Library Ready Reference (Scholars Commons) BF76.7 P83 2010

Strozier Library Undergraduate Collection 2nd Floor BF76.7 P83 2010

Goldstein Library Professional Collection BF76.8 P83 2010

Medical Library Reference WZ 345P976 2010

Citing Electronic Sources


APA: Basics of APA Style Tutorial

Diana Hacker Research and Documentation: APA

APA Style Essentials Vanguard University

Purdue Online Writing Lab: APA

Eastern Washington University Research Tutorial 

National-Louis University Center of Academic Development

In-Text Citation

What You Are Citing

In-Text  Citation



 Entire Work


(Rogers, 2008)




Specific Page



(Rogers, 2008, p.39)




If author’s name is included in the text of the sentence



Rogers (2008, p.9) claims that…


**Use only the date, or data and page number(s).


Online article with no page numbers


(Mayers, 2009, para.3)


(Childs, 2003, Introduction, para.2)


One author


Reference List:

Chance, K. (2005)




(Chance, 2005)



Two authors


Reference List:

Matthews, A. & Keats, J.  (1999)





(Matthews & Keats, 1999)


Three to five authors


Reference List:

Hunt, G. , Vail, M., & Plum, T. (1986)



First Citation:

(Hunt, Vail, & Plum,  1986)

Subsequent Citations

(Hunt et al., 1986)


Six or seven authors


Reference List:

Phelps, B. , Lima, M., Gomez, L., MacArthur, T., Gansu, S., & Jepes, N. (2001)




(Phelps et al., 2001)


Group Author


Reference List:

American Library Association. (2009).



First Citation:

(American Library Association [ALA], 2009)


Subsequent Citations:

(ALA, 2009)



No author(s) listed


Reference List:


None to claim their bones: Relics of an old Brooklyn graveyard. (1888, April 12). New York Times, pp.3-4. Retrieved from




(“None to Claim Their Bones”, 1888)


**If the title contains a colon, only use the text before the colon in the in-text citation.


Undated Sources




(King, n.d.)


Citing a source within a source


Reference List:

Linhares, A., & Brum,P.(2007). Understanding our understanding of strategic scenarios: What role do chunks play? Cognitive Science, 31 (6), 989-1007.




Fredericks study (as cited in Linhares & Brum, 2007) found that…


**Your in-text citations gives credit to second source

Reference List


Reference List Citation






Author, A. A. (Year of publication). Title of work: Capital letter also for subtitle. Location: Publisher.



Calgry, R. C. (1991). First Step to Career Success. Washington, DC: USA Publications.





Edited Book



Editor(s) (Eds.). (Year of publication). Title of Work. Location: Publisher.



Duncan, J., & Gunn, K. (Eds.). (1993). Consequences of Fame. Chicago: Sage Press.




Article or Chapter in an Edited Book


Author, A. A., & Author, B. B. (Year of publication). Title of chapter. In A. Editor & B. Editor (Eds.), Title of book (pages of chapter). Location: Publisher.



McCarthy, A. (2001). Studying Soap Opera. In Glen Creeber  (Eds.), The Television Genre Book (47-49). London: BFI Publishing.







Kornblum, W. (2002). At sea in the city: New York from the water’s edge. Chapel Hill, NC: Algonquin Books. Retrieved from


**Use the homepage URL of the publisher of the book after the words “Retrieved from.”


Free Web


Seton, E.T. (1911). The Arctic prairies: A canoe-journey of 2,000 miles in search of the caribou. New York, NY: C. Scribner’s Sons. Retrieved from Project Gutenberg:



Article in a Periodical: (journal/magazine)



**If articles from a library database are “easily located, do not provide database information. If the article is difficult to locate, then you can provide database information.” ~Purdue Online Writing Lab.



Author, A. A., Author, B. B., & Author, C. C. (Year). Title of article. Title of Periodical, volume number(issue number), pages.



Scruton, R. (1996). The eclipse of listening. The New Criterion, 15(30), 5-13.



Author(s). (Year). Title of article. Title of Periodical, issue number, pages.



Henry, W. A., III. (1990, April 9). Making the grade in today's schools. Time, 135, 28-31.







Newspaper article




Author(s). (Year, Month Day). Title of article. Title of newspaper, page numbers.



Brown, P.L. (1999, September 5). Tiffany glass and other tales from the crypt. New York Times, pp. 1, 5.



Author, A. A. (Year, Month Day). Title of article. Title of Newspaper. Retrieved from



Foreman, J. (2003, August 12). Allston gothic. Boston Globe. Retrieved from



Article from online periodical (free web)


Author, A. A., & Author, B. B. (Date of publication). Title of article. Title of Online Periodical, volume number(issue number if available). Retrieved from


Berns, D. (2002). 10 tips on writing. Writer’s Guide. Retrieved from



Entire Web Site


In APA style there is no need to include an entry for an entire web site in your reference list as long as you identify the source clearly in the text of your paper.




The Purdue University Online Writing Lab was extremely helpful in understanding the differences between APA and MLA style (



Page within a Web Site


Purdue University Online Writing Lab. (2009). Reference List: Electronic Resources. Retrieved November 29, 2009, from





Library Database


Artist. (Year). Title of work [medium]. Location of original work. Retrieved from database.



Rousseau,H. (1896). The ship in the storm [Painting]. Musee de l’Orangerie, Paris. Retrieved from Oxford Art Online Database.


Image Reproduced in a printed source


Artist. (Year) Title of work  [medium]. Location of original. Title of reproduced work. By author(s). Location: Publisher. Page number.



Rosseau, H. (1896). The ship in the storm [Painting]. Musee de l’Orangerie, Paris. Henri  Rousseau: Jungles in Paris. By Claire Fresches et al. Washington, DC: National Gallery of Art, 232.


Formatting Your Paper in APA Style

Citing Sources in APA Style PowerPoint

Research Assistance

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