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Citation Guide

This guide presents information and resources on APA, MLA, and Chicago styles as well as guidance on citation management programs.

"The Chicago NB system is often used in the humanities and provides writers with a system for referencing their sources through footnote or endnote citation in their writing and through bibliography pages. NB system is most commonly used in the discipline of History. Properly using the NB system builds credibility by demonstrating accountability to source material." (Purdue Online Writing Lab) (Online edition)

Major Changes Between the 15th & 16th Editions

A number of changes in the Chicago Style have been introduced in the 16th edition. Two major changes that require attention are shown below.

Dividing URLs Over a Line
In a printed work, if a URL or DOI has to be broken at the end of a line, the break should be made after a colon or a double slash (//); before a single slash (/), a tilde (~), a period, a comma, a hyphen, an underline (_), a question mark, a number sign, or a percent symbol; or before or after an equals sign or an ampersand. 14.12




Access Dates
Access dates are not required by Chicago in citations of formally published electronic sources. Some publishers and some disciplines, however, may require them. When they are included, they should immediately precede the DOI or URL, separated from the surrounding citation by commas in a note and periods in a bibliography entry 14.185


 1. Patrick G. P. Charles et al., “SMART-COP: A Tool for Predicting the Need for Intensive Respiratory or Vasopressor Support in Community-Acquired Pneumonia,” Clinical Infectious Diseases 47 (August 1, 2008): 377, accessed July 17, 2008, doi:10.1086/589754.

Additional changes can be found on the Chicago Manual of Style website or by clicking the chapter and section numbers written next to each item. These changes include:

  • Titles with Quotations - 8.160
  • Titles of Paintings, drawings, photographs, statues, etc. - 8.193
  • Titles of Art Exhibitions - 8.195
  • Legal and Public Documents - 14.281
  • Notes and bibliography vs author-date references - 15.2
  • Text Citations in author-date style - 15.24-15.25

In-Text and Notes

The Chicago style allows for two different types of reference styles: the Author-Date System and the Documentary-Note (or Humanities) Style. Traditionally, those in the humanities and social sciences (including history) use the Documentary-Note Style, and those in the sciences use the Author-Date System.

The information below is a general overview of the rules of Chicago Style citation. For the full manual, visit Chicago Manual of Style.



8. John Maynard Smith, "The Origin of Altruism," Nature 393 (1998): 639-40.

Bibliographic entry

Smith, John Maynard. "The Origin of Altruism." Nature 393 (1998): 639–40.

Academic Journals


Library database

2. Graeme K. Deans, Fritz Kroeger and Stefan Zeisel, "The Consolidation Curve," Harvard Business Review 80, no. 12 (2002): 20-21, accessed November 15, 2006,

Free web

33. Mark A. Hlatky et al., "Quality-of-Life and Depressive Symptoms in Postmenopausal Women after Receiving Hormone Therapy: Results from the Heart and Estrogen/Progestin Replacement Study (HERS) Trial," Journal of the American Medical Association 287, no. 5 (2002), accessed November 15, 2006, http://jama.ama

In print

8. John Maynard Smith, "The Origin of Altruism," Nature 393 (1998): 639.



Library database

5. Stephen Lacey, "The New German Style," Horticulture, March 2000, 44-50, (accessed November 17, 2006).

Free web

5. Stephen Lacey, "The New German Style," Horticulture, March 2000, 44-50, (accessed November 17, 2006).

In print

29. Steve Martin, "Sports-Interview Shocker," New Yorker, May 6, 2002, 84.



Library database

2. Beth Daley, "A Tale of a Whale: Scientists, Museum Are Eager to Study, Display Rare Creature," Boston Globe, June 11, 2002, third edition, (accessed November 17, 2006).

Free web

2. Mike Royko, "Next Time, Dan, Take Aim at Arnold," Chicago Tribune, September 23, 1982, national edition, (accessed November 16, 2006).

In print

10. William S. Niederkorn, "A Scholar Recants on His 'Shakespeare' Discovery," New York Times, June 20, 2002, Arts section, Midwest edition.



Basic book

1. Wendy Doniger, Splitting the Difference (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1999), 65.

Edited or translated book

4. Richmond Lattimore, trans., The Iliad of Homer (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1951), 91–92.

Numbered edition other than the first

22. Ernest Gowers, The Complete Plain Words, 3rd ed. (London: H. M. Stationary Office, 1986; Harmondsworth, UK: Penguin Books, 1987), 26. **Citations are to the Penguin edition.

Revised edition

23. Jacques Barzun, Simple and Direct: A Rhetoric for Writers, rev. ed. (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1994), 152-53.

Multi-volume set

37. Sewell Wright, Evolution and the Genetics of Populations, vol. 2, Theory of Gene Frequencies (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1969), 129.

Chapter or article in an anthology

5. Andrew Wiese, "'The House I Live In': Race, Class, and African American Suburban Dreams in the Postwar United States," in The New Suburban History, ed. Kevin M. Kruse and Thomas J. Sugrue (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2006), 101–2.




6. Thomas H. Davenport and John C. Beck, The Attention Economy: Understanding the New Currency of Business (Harvard Business School Press, 2001). NetLibrary e-book.

Free web

2. Philip B. Kurland and Ralph Lerner, eds., The Founders' Constitution (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1987), (accessed June 27, 2006).

Book chapter from a library database (suggested format)

5. Peter Barker, "Scientists of the Past," in World Almanac and Book of Facts (New York: World Almanac Education Group, 2006), 229-31,



With author

14. Evanston Public Library Board of Trustees, "Evanston Public Library Strategic Plan, 2000-2010: A Decade of Outreach," Evanston Public Library, (accessed July 18, 2002).


15. Federation of American Scientists, "Resolution Comparison: Reading License Plates and Headlines," (accessed November 17, 2006).




A brief statement of the source of an illustration, known as a credit line, is usually appropriate and sometimes mandatory.

(Cartoon by John Leech,."Punch's Almanac for 1855," Punch 28 [1855]: 8. Photo courtesy of the Newberry Library, Chicago.)


End Notes and Bibliography

Preparing the Endnotes

Begin the endnotes on a new page at the end of the paper. Center the title Notes about one inch from the top of the page, and number the pages consecutively with the rest of the manuscript. Click here for an example. 

Indenting and Numbering

Indent the first line of each note one-half inch (or five spaces) from the left margin; do not indent additional lines in the note. Begin the note with the arabic numeral that corresponds to the number in the text. Put a period after the number.

Line Spacing

Single space each note and double-space between notes (unless your instructor prefers double-spacing throughout).

Preparing the Bibliography

Typically, the notes in Chicago-style papers are followed by a bibliography, an alphabetically arranged list of all the works cited or consulted (click here for an example). Center the title Bibliography about one inch from the top of the page. Number bibliography pages consecutively with the rest of the paper.

Alphabetizing the List

Alphabetize the bibliography by the last names of the authors (or editors); when a work has no author or editor, alphabetize it by the first word of the title other than A, An, or The. If your list includes two or more works by the same author, use three hyphens instead of the author's name in all entries after the first. You may arrange the entries alphabetically by title or by date; be consistent throughout the bibliography.

~ From Diana Hacker Chicago Manuscript Format

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