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Citation Guide

This guide presents information and resources on APA, MLA, and Chicago styles as well as guidance on citation management programs.

APA Style: 7th Edition (2019)

Image of the APA Publication Manual, seventh edition

APA is commonly used to cite sources in the social sciences fields
such as psychology, education, and more. This guide will
provide you with basic information on how to make
in-text citations and entries in your Works Cited page.
For more in-depth information, please consult a copy
of the official APA Handbook.

APA Handbook (7th Edition) Locations:

  • 3 copies at Strozier Library Course Reserves;
  • 3 copies at Dirac Science Library Course Reserves
  • 1 copy at Music Allen Library Course Reserves
  • Ebook is available for purchase or rent from two vendors.

​​​​​​​Academic Writers Tutorial: Basics of the 7th edition of APA
An interactive tutorial from the APA for teaching and learning effective writing.


Other Useful Sources on APA 7

How to Cite AI Tools in APA

If you intend to use and cite AI-generated content for course assignments, first consult with your instructor. Instructors have varying opinions about how or whether students may use ChatGPT or other Generative AI tools. Use the following format to cite ChatGPT. For detailed information on how to cite AI in APA style, please check this APA blog post, How to cite ChatGPT, created on April 7, 2023. 

To quote or reproduce the text generated by ChatGPT in your paper:

In-text Citation Reference
(OpenAI, 2023)

OpenAI. (2023). ChatGPT (Mar 14 version) [Large language model].

To put the full text of long responses from ChatGPT in an appendix or in online supplemental materials:

In-text Citation Reference
(OpenAI, 2023; see Appendix A for the full transcript) 

OpenAI. (2023). ChatGPT (Mar 14 version) [Large language model].

To create a reference to ChatGPT or other AI models and software:

In-text Citations Reference
Parenthetical citation: (OpenAI, 2023)       
Narrative citation: OpenAI (2023) 

OpenAI. (2023). ChatGPT (Mar 14 version) [Large language model].

Reference List


Type of Source

Reference List Citation

Edited book



Editor, A.A. (Ed.). (Year of publication). Title of work. Publisher.




Romano, A. J., & Marincola, J. (Eds.). (2019). 

Host or parasite?: Mythographers and their contemporaries in the classical and Hellenistic periods. De Gruyter.    

 Article or chapter in an edited book


Author, A. A., & Author, B. B. (Year of publication). Title of chapter. In A.A. Editor & B.B. Editor (Eds.), Title of book (pages of chapter). Publisher.




Bonn, M. A. (2003). Employee service quality issues: Meeting the needs of our internal customers. In Salih Kusluvan (Ed)., Managing employee attitudes and behaviors in the tourism and hospitality industry (pp. 433-452). Nova Scientific. 

 Electronic-only book


Author, A. A. (Year of Publication). Title of book


Fahm, A. (2019). Introduction to financial mathematics: Concepts, and computational methods. 




Type of Source Reference List Citation

Article in a periodical (journal/magazine)

**If articles from a library database are “easily located, do not provide database information. If the article is difficult to locate, then you can provide database information.” (from Purdue Online Writing Lab)

Journal Format:

Author, A. A., Author, B. B., & Author, C. C. (Year). Title of article. Title of Periodical, volume number(issue number), pages.

Journal Example:

Zhao, T., Bell, L., Horner, M. W., Sulik, J., & Zhang, J. (2012). Consumer responses towards home energy financial incentives: A survey-based study. Energy Policy, 47, 291-297.

Magazine Format:

Author(s). (Year, Month Day). Title of article. Title of Periodicalissue number, pages.

Magazine Example:

Banks, H. (1993, April 26). Soak the lower middle class! Forbes, 151(9), 37.

Newspaper article 

Print Format:

Author(s). (Year, Month Day). Title of article. Title of Newspaper, page(s).

Print Example:

Brown, P.L. (2017, June 23). When a Brooklyn Graveyard can't expand outward, it looks within: [metropolitan desk]. The New York Times, p. A.22.

Electronic Format:

Author, A. A. (Year, Month Day). Title of article. Title of Newspaper

Electronic Example:

Sifferlin, A. (2015, September 30). “Washing dishes is a really great stress reliever, science says.” Time

Article from online periodical (no DOI)


Author, A. A., & Author, B. B. (Publication Year). Title of article. Title of Periodical, volume number(issue number if available), page(s). 


Weissert, C. S. (2004). Promise and perils of state-based road to universal health insurance in the U.S., Journal of Health Care Law & Policy, 7(1), 42-69. 

Article from online periodical (DOI provided)


Author, A.A., Author, B.B., & Author, C.C. (Year). Title of article. Title of Periodical, volume number, pages.

Constantino, C. D., Manning, W. J., & Nordstrom, S. N. (2017). Rethinking covert stuttering. Journal of Fluency Disorders, 53, 26-40.


Type of Source                            

Reference List Citation

Entire web site


In APA style there is no need to include an entry for an entire web site in your reference list as long as you identify the source clearly in the text of your paper.


The Purdue University Online Writing Lab was extremely helpful in understanding the differences between APA and MLA styles (

Dissertations or Theses 


Author, A. A. (Year). Title of dissertation [Format]. Name of Institution Awarding the Degree. 

Kroto, H. W. (1964). The spectra of unstable molecules under high resolution [Unpublished doctoral dissertation]. University of Sheffield.

​Gutbezahl, B. (1952). Acid dissociation and acidity in the ethanol-water system [Unpublished doctoral dissertation]. Florida State University. 

Data set 


Author, A. (Year Created). Title of data. [Format]. Publisher. 


Bales, W. D. (2018). Florida State University and Florida Department of Juvenile Justice research partnership projects, 2002-2017 (ICPSR 36972) [Data and code book]. ICPSR. 

In-Text Citation


What You Are Citing

In-Text Citation


  Entire work

  Parenthetical Citation:

  (Baumeister, 2010)

  Narrative Citation:
  Baumeister (2010)




 Specific page or part of a work



  Parenthetical Citation: 

  (Bakan, 2019, p.111) 

  (Bakan, 2019, Chapter 3)




  Narrative Citation: 




  Bakan (2019, p.111) noted that  




 Multiple works



  Parenthetical Citation: 
  (De Giorgi, 2019; Jones & Lin, 2019; Mazza,
  (Lowe, 2014, 2018)

  Narrative Citation:
  De Giogi (2019), Jones and Lin (2019), and
  Mazza (2003) 

  Lowe (2014, 2018)

  List entries in alphabetical order



 Online article with no page numbers


  Parenthetical Citation: 

  (Mayers, 2009, paras. 2-3)


 (Southerland et al., 2016, Discussion, para.1)



  One author

Reference List:

  Feiock, R. (2013)




   Parenthetical Citation:

  (Feiock, 2013) 

  Narrative Citation:

​  Feiock (2013)



 Two authors



 Reference List:

 Paek, I. & Cole, K. (2019)





   Parenthetical Citation:


  (Paek & Cole, 2019)

  Narrative Citation: 

  Paek and Cole (2019)


  Three or more authors


  Reference List:

  Darling, C. A., Olmstead, S.B., Lund, V. E., &
  Fairclough, J. F.  (2008) 



   Parenthetical Citation:

  (Darling et al., 2008)

  Narrative Citation: 
  Darling et al. (2008)
  Only the first author plus "et al." for first and   
  subsequent citations 


 Group author




 Reference List:

 American Library Association. (2019) 




  Parenthetical Citation:
      First Citation

      (American Library Association [ALA], 2019)

      Subsequent Citations

      (ALA, 2019)

  Narrative Citation: 
      First Citation
      American Library Association (ALA, 2019)

      Subsequent Citations
      ALA (2019)   




 No author(s) listed





 Reference List: 


 None to claim their bones: Relics of an old Brooklyn graveyard. (1888, April 21). The New York Times, pp.3-4. 






  (“None to Claim Their Bones,” 1888)


  If the title contains a colon, only use the text
  before the colon in the in-text citation.



 Undated sources





  Parenthetical Citation:
  (King, n.d.)

  Narrative Citation: 
  King (n.d.)


 Citing a source within a source



  Reference List:

  Arpan, L. M., & Raney, A. A. (2003). An experimental investigation of news source and the hostile media effect. Journalism & Mass Communication Quarterly 80(2), 265-281. 






   Parenthetical Citation:
  (Gunther, 1992, as cited in Arpan & Raney, 2003)


 Your in-text citation gives credit to the second source


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