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Citation Guide

This guide presents information and resources on APA, MLA, and Chicago styles as well as guidance on citation management programs.

Chicago Style

"The Chicago NB system is often used in the humanities and provides writers with a system for referencing their sources through footnote or endnote citation in their writing and through bibliography pages. NB system is most commonly used in the discipline of History. Properly using the NB system builds credibility by demonstrating accountability to source material." (Purdue Online Writing Lab) (Online edition)

Major Changes Between the 16th & 17th Editions

A number of changes to the Chicago Style have been introduced in the 17th edition. A few major changes that require attention are shown below.

Notes and Bibliography

  • Source citations were known as documentation in the 16th edition of CMOS and earlier.
  • Shortened citations are now preferred over ibid.

Additional changes can be found on the Chicago Manual of Style's "What's New in the 17th Edition" page.

Chicago Styles

The Chicago style allows for two different types of reference styles: the Author-Date System and the Notes and Bibliography (or Documentary-Note) Style. Traditionally, those in the humanities and social sciences (including history) use the Notes and Bibliography Style and those in the sciences use the Author-Date System.

The Author-Date System uses in-text parenthetical references followed by a corresponding References list at the end of your paper. They are used to guide the reader to your References list as they read. This System usually involves the author's last name and publication date of the cited material.

  • "Through analysis of sports injuries over a ten year period, Smith (2008) found that..."
  • "In 2008, Smith conducted an in-depth analysis of sports injuries over a ten year period to..."
  • "Sports injuries rarely cause death, however, recent research shows Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) as the leading cause of sports injury-related death (Smith, 2008, 324-340)."

The Notes and Bibliography Style may appear more visually related to what you expect Chicago Style to resemble. This method uses a combination of footnotes and a bibliography at the end of the paper to cite material used. Citations are indicated in-text through use of inserted superscript-style numerals.

  • "Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) has been shown to be the leading cause of sports injury-related death.1 However, we also know that sports injury-related death is rare.2"

This would be followed by a footnote at the bottom of the page. Note that in this Style, subsequent citations from the same work are shortened*:

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 

1. John Smith, A 100-Year Review of Sports and Medicine (New York: New York, 2008), 324-330.

2. Smith, "A 100-Year Review", 330-340.


* (For those of you familiar: this has replaced 'Ibid.')

The information below provides examples of the Notes and Bibliography Chicago Style. For the full manual, visit Chicago Manual of Style.



8. John Maynard Smith, "The Origin of Altruism," Nature 393 (1998): 639.

Bibliographic entry

Smith, John Maynard. "The Origin of Altruism." Nature 393 (1998): 639–40.

Academic Journals


Library database

2. Tomoe Otsuki, “Visualising Nuclear Futurism and Narrating Queer Futurity in Yanobe Kenji’s The Sun Child and Tawada Yōko’s The Emissary,” Asian Studies Review 46, no. 3 (2022): 455,

In print

8. John Maynard Smith, "The Origin of Altruism," Nature 393 (1998): 639.



Library database

5. Stephen Lacey, "The New German Style," Horticulture, March 2000, 44-50, (accessed November 17, 2006).

Free web

5. Stephen Lacey, "The New German Style," Horticulture, March 2000, 44-50, (accessed November 17, 2006).

In print

29. Steve Martin, "Sports-Interview Shocker," New Yorker, May 6, 2002, 84.



Library database

2. Beth Daley, "A Tale of a Whale: Scientists, Museum Are Eager to Study, Display Rare Creature," Boston Globe, June 11, 2002, third edition, (accessed November 17, 2006).

Free web

2. Mike Royko, "Next Time, Dan, Take Aim at Arnold," Chicago Tribune, September 23, 1982, national edition, (accessed November 16, 2006).

In print

10. William S. Niederkorn, "A Scholar Recants on His 'Shakespeare' Discovery," New York Times, June 20, 2002, Arts section, Midwest edition.



Basic book

1. Wendy Doniger, Splitting the Difference (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1999), 65.

Edited or translated book

4. Richmond Lattimore, trans., The Iliad of Homer (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1951), 91–92.

Numbered edition other than the first

22. Ernest Gowers, The Complete Plain Words, 3rd ed. (London: H. M. Stationary Office, 1986; Harmondsworth, UK: Penguin Books, 1987), 26. **Citations are to the Penguin edition.

Revised edition

23. Jacques Barzun, Simple and Direct: A Rhetoric for Writers, rev. ed. (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1994), 152-53.

Multi-volume set

37. Sewell Wright, Evolution and the Genetics of Populations, vol. 2, Theory of Gene Frequencies (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1969), 129.

Chapter or article in an anthology

5. Andrew Wiese, "'The House I Live In': Race, Class, and African American Suburban Dreams in the Postwar United States," in The New Suburban History, ed. Kevin M. Kruse and Thomas J. Sugrue (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2006), 101–2.



From a library database

6. Beatriz Pérez Zapata, Zadie Smith and Postcolonial Trauma : Decolonizing Trauma, Decolonizing Selves (New York, Routledge, 2021), 50, FSU Taylor & Francis Collection.

Free web

3. Herman Melville, Moby-Dick; or, The Whale (New York: Harper & Brothers, 1851), 627,


5. Samuel R. Delaney, Stars in My Pocket Like Grains of Sand, (Open Road Media Sci-Fi & Fantasy, 2014), chap. 3, Kindle.



Known author and publication date

14. Eric Deggans, "Why Black characters in 'Rings of Power' and 'Little Mermaid' make fantasy better," September 18, 2022,

Unknown author and publication date

15. "Resolution Comparison: Reading License Plates and Headlines," Federation of American Scientists, accessed November 17, 2006,




A brief statement of the source of an illustration, known as a credit line, is usually appropriate and sometimes mandatory.

(Cartoon by John Leech,."Punch's Almanac for 1855," Punch 28 [1855]: 8. Photo courtesy of the Newberry Library, Chicago.)


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