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a guide for engineering students and faculty to find relevant library materials and other types of information to conduct their research.

What is Vacouver Style?

The Vancouver referencing style uses numerical citations throughout a document and a Reference List at the end. It was created in 1978 at the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors conference in Vancouver, and has come to be known as the Vancouver style. Vancouver, is a "numbered" style, and follows the rules established by the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors.

In-Text Citations:

Diagram of text with reference number after the sentence

Citations are numbered consecutively in the order in which they appear in the text and each citation corresponds to a numbered reference, containing publication information about the source cited, in the reference list at the end of the publication, essay or assignment.

Once a source has been cited, the same number is used in all subsequent references. No distinction is made between print and electronic references when citing within the text.

References List:

A numbered list of references must be provided at the end of the paper:

Example reference list entry

The list should be arranged in the order of citation in the text of the publication, assignment or essay, not in alphabetical order.

List only one reference per reference number.

Example Citations

E-journal Citation Format:

1. Obrist B, Iteba N, Lengeler C, Makemba A, Mshana C. Access to health care in contexts of livelihood insecurity: a framework for analysis and action. PLoS Med 2007;4:1584-88. doi:10.1371/journal.pmed.0040308

Conference Paper/Proceedings Format:

2.Armstrong N, Nugent C, Moore G, Finlay D. Mapping userneeds to smartphone services for persons with chronic disease. In: Hutchison D, ed. Ambient assistive health and wellness management in the heart of the city: 7th International Conference on Smart Homes and Health Telematics, ICOST 2009, Tours, France, July 1-3, 2009. Proceedings. Heidelberg: Springer, 2009:25-31.

Book Format:

3. Schwartz L, Hendry RA, Preece PE. Medical ethics: a case based approach. Edinburgh: Saunders, 2002.

4. US Food and Drug Administration. Public Health Advisory: need for caution when using vacuum assisted delivery devices. Rockville, MD: FDA Center for Devices and Radiological Health, 1998.

Vancouver Rules of Thumb

In-Text Citation Rules:

1. A number is allocated to a source in the order in which it is cited in the text. If the source is referred to again, the same number is used again.
2. Use Arabic numerals (1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9)
3. Reference numbers should be inserted to the left or inside of colons and semi-colons.
4. Reference numbers are generally placed after periods and commas.
5. Be consistent with your referencing style across the document.

References List Rules:

1. References are listed in numerical order, and in the same order in which they are cited in text. The reference list appears at the end of the paper.
2. Begin your reference list on a new page and title it 'References.'
3. The reference list should include all and only those references you have cited in the text. (However, do not include unpublished items such as correspondence).
4. Use Arabic numerals (1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9).
5. Check the reference details against the actual source - you are indicating that you have read a source when you cite it.
6. Be consistent with your referencing style across the document.
7. Include the DOI, if available, or the complete internet address.

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